18 desember 2009


Denne artikkelen (hele teksten nedenfor) får en virkelig til å lure.

Teksten begynner som følger (min oversettelse):
Arktis synes å bli varmet opp. Rapporter fra fiskere, selfangere og oppdagere som seiler i havet rundt Svalbard og den østlige Arktis forteller alle om en radikal endring i klimatiske forholdene, og hittil uhørt høye temperaturer .
Hørt det før? Jo, men dette var skrevet i 1922.

Les også: Gore og Støre presenterte issmeltingsrapport

Den følgende artikkelen ble opprinnelig publisert i Monthly Weather Review, vol. 50, issue 11, p. 589

The Changing Artic


Under date of October 10. 1922 the American consul at Bergen Norway, submitted the following to the State Department,Washington, D. C.

The Arctic seems to be warming up. Reports from fishermen, seal hunters, and explorers who sail the seas about Spitzbergen and the eastern Arctic, all point to a radical change in climatic conditions, and hitherto unheard-of high temperatures in that part of the earth's surface.

In August, 1922, the Norwegian Departnient of Commerce sent an expedition to Spitzbergen and Bear Island under the leadership of Dr. Adolf Hoel, lecturer on geology at the University of Christiania. Its purpose was to survey and chart the lands adjacent to the Norwegian mines on those islands, take soundings of the adjacent waters, and make other oceanographic investigations.

Dr. Hoel, who has just returned, reports the location of hitherto unknown coal deposits on the eastern shores of Advent Bay-deposits or vast extent and superior quality. This is regarded as of first importance, as so far most of the coal mined by the Norwegian companies on those islands has not been of the best quality.

The oceanographic observations have, however, been even more interesting. Ice conditions were excepional. In fact, so little ice was never before been noted. The expedition all but established a record, sailing as far north its Sl° 29' in ice-free water. This is the farthest north ever reached with modern oceanographicapparatus.

The character of the waters of the great polar basin has heretofore been practically unknown. Dr. Hoel reports that he made a section of the Gulf Stream at 81' north latitude and took soundings to a depth of 3,100 meters. These show the Gulf Stream very warm, and it could be traced as a surface current till beyond the 81st parallel. The warmth of the waters makes it probable that the favorable ice conditions will continue for some time.

Later a section was taken of the Gulf Stream off Bear Island and off the Isfjord, as well as a section of the cold current that comes down along the west coast of Spitzbergen off the south cape.

In connection with 8r. Hoel's report, it is of interest to note the unusually warm summer in Arctic Norway and the observations of Capt. Martin Ingebrigtsen, who has sailed the eastern Arctic for 54 years past. He says that he first noted warmer conditions in 1915, that since that time it has steadily gotten warmer, and that to-day the Arctic of that region is not recognizable as the same region of 1865 to 1917.

Many old landmarks are so changed to be unreconizible. Where formerly great masses of ice were found there are now often moraines, accunlulations of earth and stones. At many points where glaciers formerly extended far into the sea they have entierly disaperars.

The change in temperature, sais Captain Ingebrigtsen has also brought about great change in the flora and fauna of the Arctic. This summer he sought for white fish in Spitzbergen waters. Formerly great shoals of them were found there. This year he saw none, although he visited all the old fishing grounds.

There were few seal in Sitzbergen waters this year, the catch being far under the average. This, however, did not surprise the captain. He pointed out that formerly the waters about Spitzbergen held an even summer temperature of about 3° Celsius; this year recorded temperatures up to 15°, and last winter the ocean did not freeze over even on the north coast of Spitzbergen.

With the disappearance of white fish and seal has come other life in these waters. This year herring in great shoals were found along the west coast of Spitzbergen, all the way from the fry to the veritable great herring. Shoals of smelt were also met with.

Sjekk også The Plow That Broke the Plains (1936) en film som forteller om de ekstreme klimatiske forholdene i USA på 30-tallet.


  1. Opplysningene om at polhavet ble jevnt varmere fra 1915 og frem på 1920-tallet stemmer dårlig med opplysninger på Ciceros nettsider: "Walsh og Shapman (2002) viser at isdekket om sommeren for hele Arktis varierte lite i utstrekning fra 1900 (da serien startet) og utover til rundt 1950."

    Ikke vet jeg...


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